21考研英语二冲刺阅读模拟试题练习3

2020-11-30

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模拟练习是考研冲刺阶段不可缺少的。不仅要适应考场的紧张气氛,还要进行查漏补缺。因此,大家在做模拟训练时,一定要把控好时间,在合适的时间段内,把控好正确率,从而对自己做一个考前评估!启航考研小编整理了考研英语二的模拟试题练习,一起来看看吧。

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Impending automation conjures up images of empty factory floors where men have been replaced by robots. But don’t forget the increasingly digital back office. Where will female data-entry clerks and book-keepers go? The same thing is happening in the retail sector where automation and online shopping threatens the jobs of so many female shop assistants.

New McKinsey Global Institute research finds that 20 per cent of employed women and 21 per cent of men in six mature and four emerging economies could be displaced by 2030. At the same time, 20 per cent of women and 19 per cent of men could gain employment as technology drives productivity gains and income growth that leads to rising demand.

There will be huge disruption. As many as one in four women and men around the world may need to move to new jobs. But the women running the race to adapt to doing so with a weight tied around their ankles—the longstanding barriers they face in work. There are three prerequisites for adapting: skills the labour market wants; the mobility to change occupations if necessary; and the ability to work with automated systems. Women are not well placed here. These are difficult issues—and many women in emerging economies have it even harder because so many work in subsistence agriculture with little education and few transferable skills.

For this, girls should be encouraged to study Stem subjects and develop coding skills. Not everyone needs to be a programmer, but good jobs will increasingly mean working with technology. Workers will need basic tech skills. Companies should invest more in training that is easily accessible, especially to women who may be less able to travel to courses. More companies should provide flexible work options for women juggling work and family. Investment in online learning could also help to overcome women’s mobility constraints. And more work needs to be done to combat long-standing stereotyping about male and female occupations that could make transitions more difficult.

Effective action on helping women survive the age of automation could put them on a path to more-productive, higher-paid work. Failure to act could leave women stuck in low-wage, low-skill jobs that will be less in demand. This could push many women out of the labour market in countries with high-cost childcare. Progress toward gender equality, already slow, could stall or even reverse. Companies would be less diverse and, according to McKinsey research, therefore less profitable.

31. According to Paragraph 1, the author stresses that female workers .

[A] don’t have a clear career planning

[B] ignore the increasingly digital back office

[C] are faced with severe threats of automation

[D] are not qualified for the job of data entry

32. The new McKinsey Global research shows that .

[A] automation can lead to rising demand and income

[B] mature economies are more vulnerable to automation

[C] the impact of automation on men and women is roughly similar

[D] the employment rate in 2030 will be lower than that in present

33. Women are long troubled in adapting to moving to new jobs for .

[A] being placed in inappropriate positions

[B] lack of necessary occupational mobility

[C] challenges from lots of male candidates

[D] being interested in agricultural production

34. Which of the following is true about Paragraph 4?

[A] Tech skills are essential for people working in automated times.

[B] Girls should be as proficient as programmers in coding skills.

[C] Women have more flexible work options than male workers.

[D] Female workers should be trained to deal with online jobs.

35. Failing to effectively help women adapt to the automation age may cause .

[A] extremely high costs of childcare

[B] a declining demand for work force

[C] lessened revenues for companies

[D] a falling number of female workers

31.【答案】C

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Paragraph 1和female workers可定位至原文第一段③句。③④句则主要介绍自动化对各行各业的女性职员带来的威胁。C项are faced with severe threats of automation(面临自动化带来的严峻挑战)是对Where will female data-entry clerks and book-keepers go和automation and online shopping threatens…的总结概括。故正确答案为C。

【干扰项】A项don’t have a clear career planning(没有清晰的职业规划)是对③句Where will female data-entry clerks and book-keepers go的错误解读,女性数据录入员和簿记员是受到自动化发展这一客观因素影响,而不是主观因素使然。B项ignore the increasingly digital back office(忽视了日益数字化的后台办公室)来自该段②句,但属于偷换概念,这里是作者呼吁大家不要忽视这一情况。D项are not qualified for the job of data entry(无法胜任数据录入的工作)关键词来自③句,但文中只是说自动化对女性数据录入员的工作带来了很大挑战,而不是否定这些员工的能力。

32.【答案】C

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词new McKinsey Global research可定位至原文第二段。该段主要介绍了一个关于自动化对男性和女性工人的影响的研究发现。①句指出:到2030年20%的受雇女性和21%的受雇男性可能会失业;②句提到:20%的女性和19%的男性可能会获得就业机会。根据数字对比可知C项the impact of automation on men and women is roughly similar(自动化对男性和女性的影响大致相同)是对原文信息的合理推断。故正确答案为C。

【干扰项】A项automation can lead to rising demand and income(自动化会导致需求和收入的增长)偷换概念,原文②句说的是收入增长导致需求增长,rising income则是无中生有。B项mature economies are more vulnerable to automation(成熟经济体更容易受到自动化的影响)关键词mature economies来自①句,但研究发现并未表明这一点。D项the employment rate in 2030 will be lower than that in present(2030年的就业率将低于现在的就业率)属于过度推断,原文只是提到了2030年自动化对男女工人就业的影响。

33.【答案】B

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干可定位至原文第三段③句,题干中Women are long troubled与句中longstanding barriers they face对应,adapting to moving to new jobs与adapt to doing so对应。该句提出论点:女性在适应转换新工作的过程中长期面临着巨大困难。下文④⑤⑥句为论据,其中④句指出了适应这种变化需要的三个先决条件。B项lack of necessary occupational mobility(缺乏必要的职业流动性)是对④句中the mobility to change occupations if necessary的同义转换。故正确答案为B。

【干扰项】A项being placed in inappropriate positions(被安排在不合适的工作岗位)是对该段⑤句Women are not well placed here的错误解读,原文的意思是:女性在这些方面都不具优势。C项challenges from lots of male candidates(来自许多男性求职者的挑战)属于无中生有,原文并未提及相关信息。D项being interested in agricultural production(对农业生产感兴趣)来自该段⑥句so many work in subsistence agriculture,但原文强调的是一些女性由于没有受到很多教育,缺乏可转移的技能才从事仅能维持生计的农业工作,暗含被迫之意。

34.【答案】A

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Paragraph 4可定位至原文第四段。该段主要介绍了帮助女性适应工作转换的几大建议。A项Tech skills are essential for people working in automated times(对于在自动化时代工作的人来说技术技能是必不可少的)是对该段②句good jobs will increasingly mean working with technology和③句Workers will need basic tech skills的总结概括。故正确答案为A。

【干扰项】B项Girls should be as proficient as programmers in coding skills(女孩应该像程序员一样精通编程技术)为错误信息,该段②句指出Not everyone needs to be a programmer(不是每个人都需要成为程序员)。C项Women have more flexible work options than male workers(女性比男性有更灵活的工作选择)关键词flexible work options来自该段⑤句provide flexible work options,但结合下文⑥句中的women’s mobility constraints可推测出女性在工作选择方面是有更多限制的。D项Female workers should be trained to deal with online jobs(女性员工应该接受处理在线工作的培训)是对该段⑥句的错误解读,原文说的是要为女性提供在线学习的机会。

35.【答案】D

【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Failing to effectively help可定位至原文第五段②句。该句和下文③④⑤句主要介绍了如果不采取有效措施的话会对女性工人带来的一些影响。D项a falling number of female workers(女性工人数量减少)是对②句leave women stuck in low-wage, low-skill jobs that will be less in demand和③句push many women out of the labour market的总结概括。故正确答案为D。

【干扰项】A项extremely high costs of childcare(极其高昂的育儿成本)来自该段③句,但原文提到的是一些国家的事实情况,并不是可能的后果;且extremely属于夸大事实。B项a declining demand for work force(对劳动力需求下降)信息错误,该段②句说的是社会对低工资、低技能的工作的需求将不断减少。C项lessened revenues for companies(公司总收入减少)是对该段⑤句less profitable的错误理解,原文说的是盈利能力也会随之下降,也就是利润减少,并不代表总收入会减少。

【参考译文】

即将到来的自动化让人联想起男性工人被机器人取代、工厂车间里空无一人的画面。但不要忘了日益数字化的后台办公室。女性数据录入员和簿记员将何去何从?同样一幕正在零售业上演,自动化和在线购物威胁着很多女性店员的就业岗位。

麦肯锡全球研究院的最新研究发现,到2030年,在6个成熟经济体和4个新兴经济体中,20%的受雇女性和21%的受雇男性可能会失业。与此同时,随着技术推动生产率提升和收入增长导致需求增长,20%的女性和19%的男性可能会获得就业机会。

这将带来巨大冲击。全球多达四分之一的男女可能需要换到新的工作岗位。但努力适应这种变化的女性脚踝上绑着重物——她们在职场长期面对的各种障碍。适应变化需要三个先决条件:具备劳动力市场需要的技能;必要时转换职业的流动能力;以及与自动化系统共事的能力。女性在这些方面都不具优势。这些都是棘手问题,而在新兴经济体中,许多女性面临更大的困难,因为她们当中有很多人从事仅能维持生计的农业工作,几乎没有受过教育,也没有什么可转移的技能。

对此,应该鼓励女孩学习STEM学科,发展编程技能。不是说每个人都需要成为一名程序员,但好的工作将越来越意味着与技术打交道。员工需要基本的技术技能。企业应加大对培训的投入,并使员工更容易获得培训,尤其是那些不太有能力出远门去听课的女性。更多公司应该为兼顾工作和家庭的女性提供灵活的工作选项。对在线学习的投资也有助于女性克服流动能力方面的制约。还需要做更多工作来消除对男性和女性所从事职业的成见,这种成见可能会加大改行的难度。

采取有效措施帮助女性在自动化时代生存下来,可以让女性走上生产效率更高、收入更高的工作道路。不采取行动可能让女性困于低工资、低技能的工作岗位上,而社会对这些工作的需求将不断减少。在育儿成本较高国家,这可能将很多女性挤出劳动力市场。本已缓慢的两性平等进程,可能会停滞,甚至逆转。麦肯锡的研究显示,企业的多元化程度将会降低,盈利能力也会随之下降。

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